In an ongoing phase I trial, 57 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were treated with LCAR-B38M, a high-avidity CAR T cell therapy targeting two epitopes of the B cell maturation antigen. All patients experienced adverse events, with 90% reporting cytokine release syndrome (mostly grades 1 and 2); 65% had grade ≥ 3 adverse events. At data cutoff, overall response rate was 88% (68% CR, 5% very good PR, 14% PR), which was independent of BCMA expression levels. Median progression-free survival was 15 months; median overall survival was not reached. 20% of the initial responders progressed by the data cutoff date.
BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has demonstrated proven efficacy in some hematologic cancers. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of LCAR-B38M, a dual epitope-binding CAR T cell therapy directed against 2 distinct B cell maturation antigen epitopes, in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS: This ongoing phase 1, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study enrolled patients (18 to 80 years) with R/R MM. Lymphodepletion was performed using cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m(2). LCAR-B38M CAR T cells (median CAR+ T cells, 0.5 x 10(6) cells/kg [range, 0.07 to 2.1 x 10(6)]) were infused in 3 separate infusions. The primary objective is to evaluate the safety of LCAR-B38M CAR T cells; the secondary objective is to evaluate the antimyeloma response of the treatment based on the general guidelines of the International Myeloma Working Group. RESULTS: At data cutoff, 57 patients had received LCAR-B38M CAR T cells. All patients experienced >/= 1 adverse events (AEs). Grade >/= 3 AEs were reported in 37/57 patients (65%); most common were leukopenia (17/57; 30%), thrombocytopenia (13/57; 23%), and aspartate aminotransferase increased (12/57; 21%). Cytokine release syndrome occurred in 51/57 patients (90%); 4/57 (7%) had grade >/= 3 cases. One patient reported neurotoxicity of grade 1 aphasia, agitation, and seizure-like activity. The overall response rate was 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76 to 95); 39/57 patients (68%) achieved a complete response, 3/57 (5%) achieved a very good partial response, and 8/57 (14%) achieved a partial response. Minimal residual disease was negative for 36/57 (63%) patients. The median time to response was 1 month (range, 0.4 to 3.5). At a median follow-up of 8 months, median progression-free survival was 15 months (95% CI, 11 to not estimable). Median overall survival for all patients was not reached. CONCLUSIONS: LCAR-B38M CAR T cell therapy displayed a manageable safety profile and demonstrated deep and durable responses in patients with R/R MM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03090659 ; Registered on March 27, 2017, retrospectively registered.