Using human CD40 transgenic mice, Deronic et al. showed that injection of an agonist CD40 Ab (agCD40) rapidly and transiently activated splenic CD19+MHC-II+ B cells and CD11c+MHC-II+ DCs and induced IP-10, MIP-1α, and TNFα in blood. Repeat dosing of agCD40 + OVA induced OVA peptide-specific ICOS+ and CD44hiCD62L- CD4+ and CD8+ TEM splenic cells. AgCD40 boosted levels of activated granzyme B+ CD8+ T cells in tumors, delayed tumor growth, and extended survival of mice bearing s.c. syngeneic bladder carcinoma tumors. Dosing agCD40 + OVA prophylactically or therapeutically prolonged the survival of OVA-transfected s.c. tumor-bearing mice.
Contributed by Paula Hochman
ABSTRACT: Non-responders to checkpoint inhibitors generally have low tumor T cell infiltration and could benefit from immunotherapy that activates dendritic cells, with priming of tumor-reactive T cells as a result. Such therapies may be augmented by providing tumor antigen in the form of cancer vaccines. Our aim was to study the effects of mitazalimab (ADC-1013; JNJ-64457107), a human anti-CD40 agonist IgG1 antibody, on activation of antigen-presenting cells, and how this influences the priming and anti-tumor potential of antigen-specific T cells, in mice transgenic for human CD40. Mitazalimab activated splenic CD11c(+) MHCII(+) dendritic cells and CD19(+) MHCII(+) B cells within 6 h, with a return to baseline within 1 week. This was associated with a dose-dependent release of proinflammatory cytokines in the blood, including IP-10, MIP-1_ and TNF-_. Mitazalimab administered at different dose regimens with ovalbumin protein showed that repeated dosing expanded ovalbumin peptide (SIINFEKL)-specific CD8(+) T cells and increased the frequency of activated ICOS(+) T cells and CD44(hi) CD62L(-) effector memory T cells in the spleen. Mitazalimab prolonged survival of mice bearing MB49 bladder carcinoma tumors and increased the frequency of activated granzyme B(+) CD8(+) T cells in the tumor. In the ovalbumin-transfected tumor E.G7-OVA lymphoma, mitazalimab administered with either ovalbumin protein or SIINFEKL peptide prolonged the survival of E.G7-OVA tumor-bearing mice, as prophylactic and therapeutic treatment. Thus, mitazalimab activates antigen-presenting cells, which improves expansion and activation of antigen-specific T cells and enhances the anti-tumor efficacy of a model cancer vaccine.