ABSTRACT: Growing evidence supports the importance of gut microbiota in the control of tumor growth and response to therapy. Here, we select prebiotics that can enrich bacterial taxa that promote anti-tumor immunity. Addition of the prebiotics inulin or mucin to the diet of C57BL/6 mice induces anti-tumor immune responses and inhibition of BRAF mutant melanoma growth in a subcutaneously implanted syngeneic mouse model. Mucin fails to inhibit tumor growth in germ-free mice, indicating that the gut microbiota is required for the activation of the anti-tumor immune response. Inulin and mucin drive distinct changes in the microbiota, as inulin, but not mucin, limits tumor growth in synge-neic mouse models of colon cancer and NRAS mutant melanoma and enhances the efficacy of a MEK inhibitor against melanoma while delaying the emergence of drug resistance. We highlight the importance of gut microbiota in anti-tumor immunity and the potential therapeutic role for prebiotics in this process.
Prebiotics help mice fight melanoma by activating anti-tumor immunity