GLOSSARY

A

  • Alternative splicing

    A process that can occur upon gene transcription, in which alternate sections of a primary gene transcript are joined to create proteins with variant amino acid sequences. Alternative splicing is typically a highly regulated and functional process in eukaryotic cells, allowing a single gene to encode several proteins. Altered function of the splicing process is common in cancer and associated with mutations and/or changes in components of the splicing machinery. Alternative splicing found in cancer cells can be of diagnostic and potentially therapeutic value.

  • AP-1

    A member of the Activator Protein family of transcription factors composed of homodimers or heterodimers of members of the Fos, Jun, Maf, or ATF protein families. The AP-1 transcription factor family has been shown to affect a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. AP-1 plays a role in the regulation of an immune response including effects on T cell activation, Th differentiation, and T cell anergy and exhaustion. Recent studies implicate AP-1 family members in modulating both co-stimulatory and inhibitory immune checkpoints in anti-cancer immune responses.

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