FAS (CD95) #
Less common alternative names: TNFRSF6, APO-1
In humans and in mice, FAS can be found on the surface of: T cells, B cells, NK cells, macrophages/monocytes, granulocytes
Ligands: CD178 (CD95L; Fas ligand)
Function: Initiation of apoptosis, inflammation, metastatic dissemination, angiogenesis
Additional information: FAS is also known as CD95. CD95 belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. Upon ligand binding, CD95 activates formation of the Death-Inducing Signaling Complex (DISC), which leads to cell death. CD95 is also involved in non-apoptotic signaling and can promote carcinogenesis by promoting and maintaining inflammation and inducing cancer cell motility through PI3K signaling pathway activation. Furthermore, CD95 plays a role in angiogenesis by regulating endothelium survival, proliferation and function.
Fas ligand (CD178) #
Alternative names: FASL, CD95L, TNFSF6, APT1LG1
In humans and in mice, Fas ligand can be found on the surface of: T cells, NK cells, granulocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells
Ligands and associated molecules: DcR3, CD95 (Fas), TNFRSF68, PTPN12, TNFRSF1A
Associated molecules: FADD
Function: apoptosis, signal transduction
Additional information: Fas ligand is also known as CD178. CD178 expression is upregulated upon T cell activation. Binding of CD178 by CD95 induces the Fas-mediated cell death pathway, which includes activation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), leading to apoptosis. CD178 plays a critical role in preventing autoreactive immune responses and in homeostatically regulating T cell and NK cell activation.
A member of the Forkhead Box (FOX) family of transcription factors that is important in the regulation of genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. FOXO4’s function is regulated by post-translational modifications. Two important regulators, kinases PI3K and AKT, can phosphorylate FOXO4 and prevent it from translocating to the nucleus. Many cancers have been found to contain mutations that promote AKT phosphorylation, and thus inactivation of FOXO4, preventing proper cell cycle regulation.
A member of the Forkhead Box (FOX) family of transcription factors that is important in the regulation of genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. FOXP3 is mainly expressed by T cells, but is also expressed by epithelial cells in certain organs. It plays a critical role in the development of regulatory T cells by modulating the function of NFAT and NF-κB, key factors in TCR signaling. FOXP3 also induces expression of many other genes. In regulatory T cell model systems, FOXP3 has been shown to bind to promoters of genes involved in regulatory T cell function, and appears to inhibit transcription of these genes upon T cell receptor binding.
A term referring to frameshift mutations caused by out-of-frame insertions and/or deletions in a gene. The resultant RNA encodes a novel polypeptide. Expression of neoORF fs-indels in patients with cancer has been found to elicit antitumor immune responses and has been associated with clinical benefit from immunotherapy, suggesting diagnostic and potential therapeutic value in cancer therapy. The translation of a neoORF may depend on whether the RNA escapes from the nonsense-mediated decay pathway.