• Cancer Research Data Commons (CRDC) #

    An expandable data science infrastructure that provides access to many different data sets supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Users can search and aggregate CRDC data across repositories, including the Genomic Data Commons, Clinical Trial Data Commons, Imaging Data Commons, and others.

  • Catalog Of Somatic Mutations In Cancer (COSMIC) #

    A manually curated catalog of genes and associated mutations implicated in cancers. It is composed of two resources: COSMIC and the Cell Lines Project, as well as tools for analyzing the datasets.

    COSMIC itself is divided into several projects:

    The Cell Lines Project contains cancer cell lines, including their genomic and expression profiling data. COSMIC is managed by the Wellcome Sanger Institute.

  • CCR1 (CD191) #

    Alternative names: CKR1, CKR-1, HM145, CMKBR1, MIP-1ɑR, RANTES-R

    CCR1 can be found on the surface of:

    • Human: T cells, stem cell/precursor, macrophages/monocytes
    • Murine: T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, stem cell precursor, macrophages/monocytes

    Ligands and associated molecules: MIP-1 (CCL3), RANTES (CCL5), MCP-3 (CCL7), MPIF-1 (CCL23), MIP-5 (CCL15), LD78

    Function: chemotaxis, chemokine receptor, immune cell recruitment

    Additional information: CCR1 is also known as CD191. CD191 is a receptor for various chemokines involved in cell communication and the recruitment of immune cells to inflammatory sites. In mice, CD191 acts as a receptor for the HIV virus.

  • CCR2 (CD192) #

    Alternative names: MCP-1-R, CC-CKR-2, FLJ78307, MCG103828, MGC111760, MGC168006, MCPs receptor

    In humans and in mice, CCR2 can be found on the surface of: T cells, B cells, macrophages/monocytes, granulocytes, endothelial cells

    Ligands: MCP-1 (CCL2), MCP-3 (CCL7), and other MCPs, HIV-1

    Function: chemotaxis, HIV receptor/coreceptor

    Additional information: CCR2 is also known as CD192. Binding of CD192 by its target chemokines facilitates monocyte movement from the bone marrow into the bloodstream and moves monocytes to injured or inflamed tissues.

  • CCR3 (CD193) #

    Alternative names: CKR3, CMKBR3, CC-CKR-3, MGC102841, MIP-1aRL2, Cmkbr1l2

    CCR3 can be found on the surface of:

    • Human: T cells, dendritic cells, granulocytes, epithelial cells
    • Murine: T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages/monocytes, granulocytes


    • Human: CCL5 (RANTES), CCL7 (MCP-3), CCL11 (eotaxin), CCL26 (eotaxin-3), CCL13 (MCP-4)
    • Murine: CCL3, CCL5 (RANTES), CCL7 (MCP-3), CCL8, CCL11 (eotaxin), CCL14, CCL15, CCL24, CCL26 (eotaxin-3), HIV-1

    Function: chemokine receptor, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, cell movement, immune response, cellular defense response

    Additional information: CCR3 is also known as CD193. CD193 is a G protein-coupled receptor and receptor for multiple cytokines. Research suggests that CD193 plays a role during an allergic reaction, asthma, or parasitic infection by mediating the accumulation and activation of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells in the airway. In mice, CD193 acts as a receptor for HIV.

    Further reading:

    Eotaxin and RANTES enhance 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraecoic acid-induced eosinophil chemotaxis. Powell WS, et al. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2001)

  • CCR4 (CD194) #

    Alternative names: CC-CKR-4, CKR4, CMKBR4, ChemR13, HGCN

    In humans, CCR4 can be found on the surface of: T cells, macrophages/monocytes, erythrocytes

    Ligands: MIP-1 (CCL4), RANTES (CCL5), TARC (CCL17), MCP-1 (CCL2), MDC (CCL22)

    Associated molecules: Caf1 and Caf4

    Function: chemokine receptor, cell adhesion, homing receptor for memory lymphocytes

    Additional information: CCR4 is also known as CD194. CD194 expression is greatest on the surface of Th2 cells, and is the primary chemokine receptor on Th2 cells. CD194 expression is upregulated following TCR and CD28 engagement on various T cell subsets. CD194 plays a crucial role in recruiting memory lymphocytes circulating in the blood to lymphoid tissues, specifically skin-homing T cells. CD194 associates with Caf1 and Caf4. Mogamulizumab is a therapeutic antibody targeting CCR4 that is approved to treat cutaneous T cell lymphoma.

    Further reading:

    CCR4 as a Therapeutic Target for Cancer Immunotherapy. Yoshie O, et al. Cancers (2021)

  • CCR5 (CD195) #

    Less common alternative names: CMKBR5, IDDM22, CC-CKR-5, FLJ78003, AM4-7

    In humans and in mice, CCR5 can be found on the surface of: T cell subsets, monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, DCs (in mice)

    Ligands: MIP-1a and -1b, MCP-2, RANTES

    Function: leukocyte chemotaxis, HIV-1 co-receptor

    Additional information: CCR5 regulates lymphocyte chemotaxis and migration through endothelium during inflammation. CCR5 is a co-receptor for HIV-1.

  • CCR6 (CD196) #

    Alternative names: BN-1, DCR2, DRY6, CKRL3, GPR29, CKR-L3, CMKBR6, GPRCY4, STRL22, CC-CKR-6, KY411, Cmkbr6, CC-CKR-6

    In humans and in mice, CCR6 can be found on the surface of: T cells, B cells, dendritic cells

    Ligands: MIP-3a (CCL20), β-defensin

    Function: cell migration, B cell maturation and differentiation

    Additional information: CCR6 is also known as CD196. CD196 plays an important role in the development of B cells from the stem cell to the mature B cell. It also plays a role in the differentiation of B cells from antigen-activated mature B cells to effector plasma B cells and memory B cells. CD196 regulates dendritic cell and T cell migration and recruitment to sites of inflammation.

    Further reading:

    The CCL20-CCR6 Axis in Cancer Progression. Kadomoto S, et al. International Journal of Molecular Science (2020)

  • cDC1 #

    A subset of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from haematopoietic stem cells. cDC1 (conventional DC1, also sometimes referred to as myeloid DC1) are found in the blood, lymph node, tonsil, spleen, bone marrow, skin, lung, intestine, and liver. cDC1 produce type III interferons and possess the machinery to efficiently cross-present intracellularly-derived antigenic peptides on MHC-I to activate CD8+ cells, playing a critical role in initiating and focusing an immune response. Recent evidence shows that cDC1 can also cross-prime CD4+ T cells via MHC-II and induce costimulation via CD40. In addition, cDC1 produce IL-12 to stimulate Th1 and NK cell responses. They also coordinate Th1 and cell killing responses through their expression of the XCR1 chemokine receptor, which supports interaction with XCL-producing activated T cells and NK cells.

  • cDC2 #

    A subset of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from haematopoietic stem cells. cDC2 (conventional DC2, also sometimes referred to as myeloid DC2) are found in the blood, tissues (including skin, lung, intestine, and liver), and lymphoid organs. In lymph nodes, they comprise most of the other cells that are found in the T cell areas. In tonsils and spleen, cDC2 cells are mostly resident DCs derived directly from blood. cDC2 express high levels of MHC-II and are critical in promoting differentiation and activation of CD4+ T cells. They also express a broad array of lectins, TLRs, NOD-like receptors, and RIG-I-like receptors, suggesting an important role in the innate immune response. cDC2 also produce high levels of IL-12 and secrete IL-23, IL-1, andTNFɑ, but little type III interferon. Thus, they are potent activators of Th1, Th2, Th17, and CD8+ T cells.

  • Center for Cancer Genomics (CCG) #

    A center, established at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), that leads work to catalog changes found in human tumors, unify data so that it can be shared, and support development of analytical tools and computation approaches aimed to improve analysis of large-scale, multidimensional data. Visit the CCG here.

  • Common gamma chain (CD132) #

    Alternative names: cytokine receptor common γ chain, IL2RG/IL2Rγ, γc

    Common γ chain can be found on the surface of:

    • Human: T cells, B cells, NK cells, macrophages/monocytes, granulocytes
    • Murine: T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, macrophages/monocytes

    Associated molecules: Subunit of IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, IL-21 receptors; CD25, CD122, CD124, CD127, CD129, CD360, JAK3, JAK1, syk, ick

    Function: functional cytokine receptor formation, signal transduction

    Additional information: Common γ chain is also known as CD132. CD132 forms with other ligand-specific receptor molecules, such as CD25, CD122, CD124, CD127, CD129, and CD360 functional interleukin receptors, which play a critical role for intercellular communication. Upon cytokine binding, the JAK/STAT signaling pathway is triggered, eventually activating transcription factors that drive cell outcomes, such as lymphocyte differentiation, maturation, and proliferation.

    Further reading:

    Structural Insights into the Common Chain Family of Cytokines and Receptors from the Interleukin-7 pathway. Walsh STR, et al. Immunological Reviews (2012)

  • CTLA-4 (CD152) #

    Alternative names: Ly-56

    In humans and mice, CTLA-4 can be found on the surface of: activated T cells, regulatory T cells, activated B cells

    Function: T cell inhibition

    Ligands: CD80 and CD86

    Associated molecules: PI3-kinase, PTP1D

    Additional information: CTLA-4 is also known as CD152. CD152 is constitutively expressed at high levels on the surface of regulatory T cells, and transiently upregulated on the surface of activated T cells. CD152 is homologous to CD28, and both bind to CD80 and CD86, though CD152 has higher affinity. Through interaction with CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, CD152 plays a crucial role in regulating and preventing T cell activation against self-antigens, promoting immunological tolerance. Unlike CD28, CD152 transmits inhibitory signals to T cells, impeding cell cycle progression. Mutations in the CD152 gene have been linked to autoimmune diseases. CD152 is a target for the cancer immunotherapy drug ipilimumab (Yervoy). Yervoy blocks the interaction between CD152 and CD80/CD86, allowing T cell activation against cancer cells.

  • CXCR3 (CD183) #

    Alternative names: CXCR3, gpr9, CKR-L2, Cmkar3, IP10, Mig-R, TAC

    In humans and in mice, CXCR3 can be found on the surface of:

    • Human: T cells, NK cells, stem cells/precursor, granulocytes
    • Murine: T cells, B cells, NK cells, macrophages/monocytes

    Ligands: IP10 (CXCL10), Mig (CXCL9), I-TAC (CXCL11), CXCL4

    Function: cell adhesion, chemotaxis, leukocyte trafficking

    Additional information: CXCR3 is also known as CD183. CD183 is preferentially expressed on Th1 cells. Upon chemokine binding, CD183 promotes T cell maturation and leukocyte trafficking to sites of inflammation (via integrin activation and cytoskeletal changes).

  • CXCR5 (CD185) #

    Alternative names: Gpcr6, MGC117347, MDR15, BLR1

    In humans and in mice, CXCR5 can be found on the surface of: T cells, B cells, NK cells, dendritic cells, macrophages/monocytes

    Ligands and associated molecules: CXCL13 (BLC), CCL13

    Function: cell migration, cell homing

    Additional information: CXCR5 is also known as CD185. CD185 is a cytokine receptor. CD185 plays a role in lymphocyte recruitment and homing, particularly B cell migration. It is a surface marker for follicular helper T cells and is expressed in Burkitts’s lymphoma.

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